Configuration for openSUSE 12.1, Drupal and Nginx

This tutorial is intended for those planning on removing Apache as their Drupal web server, and replacing it with the high performance NGINX product (pronounced Engine-X) on an openSUSE 12.1 platform. Note, this is using Nginx as the web server itself, and not as a reverse proxy as it is often used. Firstly, there is a need to install Nginx and PHP-FPM (the PHP FastCGI Process Manager).

Nginx is part of the openSUSE 12.1 distribution, but is not installed by default. The simplest way of installation is to go through the YaST software management screens.

Nginx

Similarly, PHP-FPM is also part of the distribution yet not installed by default. don't forget to search for php5-fpm otherwise it won't be found in the repository.

PHP-FPM

Configuration is required for both Nginx and for PHP-FPM.

Nginx Configuration

The definitive configuration for Nginx / Drupal can be found at http://wiki.nginx.org/Drupal. I used this as my starting point and edited it slightly for my rig.

#user  nginx;
worker_processes  1;

error_log  /var/log/nginx/error.log;

#pid        /var/run/nginx.pid;


events {
    worker_connections  1024;
    use epoll;
}


http {
    include       mime.types;
    default_type  application/octet-stream;

    log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                      '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                      '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';

    access_log  /var/log/nginx/access.log  main;

    sendfile        on;
    #tcp_nopush     on;

    keepalive_timeout  65;

    gzip  on;

    include conf.d/*.conf;

    server {
    server_name badzilla.localhost;
    root /srv/www/htdocs/badzilla; ## <-- Your only path reference.
   
    location = /favicon.ico {
    log_not_found off;
    access_log off;
    }
   
    location = /robots.txt {
    allow all;
    log_not_found off;
    access_log off;
    }
   
    # This matters if you use drush
    location = /backup {
    deny all;
    }
   
    # Very rarely should these ever be accessed outside of your lan
    location ~* \.(txt|log)$ {
    allow 192.168.0.0/16;
    deny all;
    }
   
    location ~ \..*/.*\.php$ {
    return 403;
    }
   
    location / {
    # This is cool because no php is touched for static content
    try_files $uri @rewrite;
    }
   
    location @rewrite {
    # Some modules enforce no slash (/) at the end of the URL
    # Else this rewrite block wouldn't be needed (GlobalRedirect)
    rewrite ^/(.*)$ /index.php?q=$1;
    }
   
    location ~ \.php$ {
    fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+\.php)(/.+)$;
    #NOTE: You should have "cgi.fix_pathinfo = 0;" in php.ini
    include fastcgi_params;
    fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
    fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
    fastcgi_pass unix:/tmp/phpfpm.sock;
    }
   
    # Fighting with ImageCache? This little gem is amazing.
    location ~ ^/sites/.*/files/imagecache/ {
    try_files $uri @rewrite;
    }
    # Catch image styles for D7 too.
    location ~ ^/sites/.*/files/styles/ {
    try_files $uri @rewrite;
    }
   
    location ~* \.(js|css|png|jpg|jpeg|gif|ico)$ {
    expires max;
    log_not_found off;
    }
    }
}

The most obvious change here is the server_name needs adding and this must match what you have in your hosts file, whilst the root directory on my rig confirms to the openSUSE standard of /srv/www/htdocs/

/etc/hosts

127.0.0.1       badzilla.localhost

# special IPv6 addresses
::1             localhost ipv6-localhost ipv6-loopback

fe00::0         ipv6-localnet

ff00::0         ipv6-mcastprefix
ff02::1         ipv6-allnodes
ff02::2         ipv6-allrouters
ff02::3         ipv6-allhosts

PHP-FPM Configuration

To create a PHP-FPM configuration you need to copy the default file into position.

linux-ldan:/etc/php5/fpm # cp php-fpm.conf.default php-fpm.conf
linux-ldan:/etc/php5/fpm #

/etc/php5/fpm/php-fpm.conf

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; FPM Configuration ;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

; All relative paths in this configuration file are relative to PHP's install
; prefix (/usr). This prefix can be dynamicaly changed by using the
; '-p' argument from the command line.

; Include one or more files. If glob(3) exists, it is used to include a bunch of
; files from a glob(3) pattern. This directive can be used everywhere in the
; file.
; Relative path can also be used. They will be prefixed by:
;  - the global prefix if it's been set (-p arguement)
;  - /usr otherwise
;include=etc/fpm.d/*.conf

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; Global Options ;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

[global]
; Pid file
; Note: the default prefix is /usr/var
; Default Value: none
pid = /var/run/php-fpm.pid

; Error log file
; Note: the default prefix is /usr/var
; Default Value: log/php-fpm.log
error_log = /var/log/php-fpm/php-fpm.log

; Log level
; Possible Values: alert, error, warning, notice, debug
; Default Value: notice
log_level = error

; If this number of child processes exit with SIGSEGV or SIGBUS within the time
; interval set by emergency_restart_interval then FPM will restart. A value
; of '0' means 'Off'.
; Default Value: 0
;emergency_restart_threshold = 0

; Interval of time used by emergency_restart_interval to determine when
; a graceful restart will be initiated.  This can be useful to work around
; accidental corruptions in an accelerator's shared memory.
; Available Units: s(econds), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays)
; Default Unit: seconds
; Default Value: 0
;emergency_restart_interval = 0

; Time limit for child processes to wait for a reaction on signals from master.
; Available units: s(econds), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays)
; Default Unit: seconds
; Default Value: 0
;process_control_timeout = 0

; Send FPM to background. Set to 'no' to keep FPM in foreground for debugging.
; Default Value: yes
;daemonize = yes

; Set open file descriptor rlimit for the master process.
; Default Value: system defined value
;rlimit_files = 1024

; Set max core size rlimit for the master process.
; Possible Values: 'unlimited' or an integer greater or equal to 0
; Default Value: system defined value
;rlimit_core = 0

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; Pool Definitions ;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

; Multiple pools of child processes may be started with different listening
; ports and different management options.  The name of the pool will be
; used in logs and stats. There is no limitation on the number of pools which
; FPM can handle. Your system will tell you anyway :)

; Start a new pool named 'www'.
; the variable $pool can we used in any directive and will be replaced by the
; pool name ('www' here)
[www]

; Per pool prefix
; It only applies on the following directives:
; - 'slowlog'
; - 'listen' (unixsocket)
; - 'chroot'
; - 'chdir'
; - 'php_values'
; - 'php_admin_values'
; When not set, the global prefix (or /usr) applies instead.
; Note: This directive can also be relative to the global prefix.
; Default Value: none
;prefix = /path/to/pools/$pool

; The address on which to accept FastCGI requests.
; Valid syntaxes are:
;   'ip.add.re.ss:port'    - to listen on a TCP socket to a specific address on
;                            a specific port;
;   'port'                 - to listen on a TCP socket to all addresses on a
;                            specific port;
;   '/path/to/unix/socket' - to listen on a unix socket.
; Note: This value is mandatory.
listen = /tmp/phpfpm.sock

; Set listen(2) backlog. A value of '-1' means unlimited.
; Default Value: 128 (-1 on FreeBSD and OpenBSD)
;listen.backlog = -1

; List of ipv4 addresses of FastCGI clients which are allowed to connect.
; Equivalent to the FCGI_WEB_SERVER_ADDRS environment variable in the original
; PHP FCGI (5.2.2+). Makes sense only with a tcp listening socket. Each address
; must be separated by a comma. If this value is left blank, connections will be
; accepted from any ip address.
; Default Value: any
;listen.allowed_clients = 127.0.0.1

; Set permissions for unix socket, if one is used. In Linux, read/write
; permissions must be set in order to allow connections from a web server. Many
; BSD-derived systems allow connections regardless of permissions.
; Default Values: user and group are set as the running user
;                 mode is set to 0666
;listen.owner = nobody
;listen.group = nobody
;listen.mode = 0666

; Unix user/group of processes
; Note: The user is mandatory. If the group is not set, the default user's group
;       will be used.
user = nobody
group = nobody

; Choose how the process manager will control the number of child processes.
; Possible Values:
;   static  - a fixed number (pm.max_children) of child processes;
;   dynamic - the number of child processes are set dynamically based on the
;             following directives:
;             pm.max_children      - the maximum number of children that can
;                                    be alive at the same time.
;             pm.start_servers     - the number of children created on startup.
;             pm.min_spare_servers - the minimum number of children in 'idle'
;                                    state (waiting to process). If the number
;                                    of 'idle' processes is less than this
;                                    number then some children will be created.
;             pm.max_spare_servers - the maximum number of children in 'idle'
;                                    state (waiting to process). If the number
;                                    of 'idle' processes is greater than this
;                                    number then some children will be killed.
; Note: This value is mandatory.
pm = dynamic

; The number of child processes to be created when pm is set to 'static' and the
; maximum number of child processes to be created when pm is set to 'dynamic'.
; This value sets the limit on the number of simultaneous requests that will be
; served. Equivalent to the ApacheMaxClients directive with mpm_prefork.
; Equivalent to the PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN environment variable in the original PHP
; CGI.
; Note: Used when pm is set to either 'static' or 'dynamic'
; Note: This value is mandatory.
pm.max_children = 50

; The number of child processes created on startup.
; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'dynamic'
; Default Value: min_spare_servers + (max_spare_servers - min_spare_servers) / 2
pm.start_servers = 20

; The desired minimum number of idle server processes.
; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'dynamic'
; Note: Mandatory when pm is set to 'dynamic'
pm.min_spare_servers = 5

; The desired maximum number of idle server processes.
; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'dynamic'
; Note: Mandatory when pm is set to 'dynamic'
pm.max_spare_servers = 35

; The number of requests each child process should execute before respawning.
; This can be useful to work around memory leaks in 3rd party libraries. For
; endless request processing specify '0'. Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS.
; Default Value: 0
pm.max_requests = 500

; The URI to view the FPM status page. If this value is not set, no URI will be
; recognized as a status page. By default, the status page shows the following
; information:
;   accepted conn        - the number of request accepted by the pool;
;   pool                 - the name of the pool;
;   process manager      - static or dynamic;
;   idle processes       - the number of idle processes;
;   active processes     - the number of active processes;
;   total processes      - the number of idle + active processes.
;   max children reached - number of times, the process limit has been reached,
;                          when pm tries to start more children (works only for
;                          pm 'dynamic')
; The values of 'idle processes', 'active processes' and 'total processes' are
; updated each second. The value of 'accepted conn' is updated in real time.
; Example output:
;   accepted conn:        12073
;   pool:                 www
;   process manager:      static
;   idle processes:       35
;   active processes:     65
;   total processes:      100
;   max children reached: 1
; By default the status page output is formatted as text/plain. Passing either
; 'html', 'xml' or 'json' as a query string will return the corresponding output
; syntax. Example:
;   http://www.foo.bar/status
;
   http://www.foo.bar/status?json
;
   http://www.foo.bar/status?html
;
   http://www.foo.bar/status?xml
;
Note: The value must start with a leading slash (/). The value can be
;       anything, but it may not be a good idea to use the .php extension or it
;       may conflict with a real PHP file.
; Default Value: not set
;pm.status_path = /status

; The ping URI to call the monitoring page of FPM. If this value is not set, no
; URI will be recognized as a ping page. This could be used to test from outside
; that FPM is alive and responding, or to
; - create a graph of FPM availability (rrd or such);
; - remove a server from a group if it is not responding (load balancing);
; - trigger alerts for the operating team (24/7).
; Note: The value must start with a leading slash (/). The value can be
;       anything, but it may not be a good idea to use the .php extension or it
;       may conflict with a real PHP file.
; Default Value: not set
;ping.path = /ping

; This directive may be used to customize the response of a ping request. The
; response is formatted as text/plain with a 200 response code.
; Default Value: pong
;ping.response = pong

; The access log file
; Default: not set
;access.log = log/$pool.access.log

; The access log format.
; The following syntax is allowed
;  %%: the '%' character
;  %C: %CPU used by the request
;      it can accept the following format:
;      - %{user}C for user CPU only
;      - %{system}C for system CPU only
;      - %{total}C  for user + system CPU (default)
;  %d: time taken to serve the request
;      it can accept the following format:
;      - %{seconds}d (default)
;      - %{miliseconds}d
;      - %{mili}d
;      - %{microseconds}d
;      - %{micro}d
;  %e: an environment variable (same as $_ENV or $_SERVER)
;      it must be associated with embraces to specify the name of the env
;      variable. Some exemples:
;      - server specifics like: %{REQUEST_METHOD}e or %{SERVER_PROTOCOL}e
;      - HTTP headers like: %{HTTP_HOST}e or %{HTTP_USER_AGENT}e
;  %f: script filename
;  %l: content-length of the request (for POST request only)
;  %m: request method
;  %M: peak of memory allocated by PHP
;      it can accept the following format:
;      - %{bytes}M (default)
;      - %{kilobytes}M
;      - %{kilo}M
;      - %{megabytes}M
;      - %{mega}M
;  %n: pool name
;  %o: ouput header
;      it must be associated with embraces to specify the name of the header:
;      - %{Content-Type}o
;      - %{X-Powered-By}o
;      - %{Transfert-Encoding}o
;      - ....
;  %p: PID of the child that serviced the request
;  %P: PID of the parent of the child that serviced the request
;  %q: the query string
;  %Q: the '?' character if query string exists
;  %r: the request URI (without the query string, see %q and %Q)
;  %R: remote IP address
;  %s: status (response code)
;  %t: server time the request was received
;      it can accept a strftime(3) format:
;      %d/%b/%Y:%H:%M:%S %z (default)
;  %T: time the log has been written (the request has finished)
;      it can accept a strftime(3) format:
;      %d/%b/%Y:%H:%M:%S %z (default)
;  %u: remote user
;
; Default: "%R - %u %t \"%m %r\" %s"
;access.format = %R - %u %t "%m %r%Q%q" %s %f %{mili}d %{kilo}M %C%%

; The timeout for serving a single request after which the worker process will
; be killed. This option should be used when the 'max_execution_time' ini option
; does not stop script execution for some reason. A value of '0' means 'off'.
; Available units: s(econds)(default), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays)
; Default Value: 0
;request_terminate_timeout = 0

; The timeout for serving a single request after which a PHP backtrace will be
; dumped to the 'slowlog' file. A value of '0s' means 'off'.
; Available units: s(econds)(default), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays)
; Default Value: 0
;request_slowlog_timeout = 0

; The log file for slow requests
; Default Value: not set
; Note: slowlog is mandatory if request_slowlog_timeout is set
;slowlog = log/$pool.log.slow

; Set open file descriptor rlimit.
; Default Value: system defined value
;rlimit_files = 1024

; Set max core size rlimit.
; Possible Values: 'unlimited' or an integer greater or equal to 0
; Default Value: system defined value
;rlimit_core = 0

; Chroot to this directory at the start. This value must be defined as an
; absolute path. When this value is not set, chroot is not used.
; Note: you can prefix with '$prefix' to chroot to the pool prefix or one
; of its subdirectories. If the pool prefix is not set, the global prefix
; will be used instead.
; Note: chrooting is a great security feature and should be used whenever
;       possible. However, all PHP paths will be relative to the chroot
;       (error_log, sessions.save_path, ...).
; Default Value: not set
;chroot =

; Chdir to this directory at the start.
; Note: relative path can be used.
; Default Value: current directory or / when chroot
;chdir = /var/www

; Redirect worker stdout and stderr into main error log. If not set, stdout and
; stderr will be redirected to /dev/null according to FastCGI specs.
; Note: on highloaded environement, this can cause some delay in the page
; process time (several ms).
; Default Value: no
catch_workers_output = yes

; Pass environment variables like LD_LIBRARY_PATH. All $VARIABLEs are taken from
; the current environment.
; Default Value: clean env
;env[HOSTNAME] = $HOSTNAME
;env[PATH] = /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin
;env[TMP] = /tmp
;env[TMPDIR] = /tmp
;env[TEMP] = /tmp

; Additional php.ini defines, specific to this pool of workers. These settings
; overwrite the values previously defined in the php.ini. The directives are the
; same as the PHP SAPI:
;   php_value/php_flag             - you can set classic ini defines which can
;                                    be overwritten from PHP call 'ini_set'.
;   php_admin_value/php_admin_flag - these directives won't be overwritten by
;                                     PHP call 'ini_set'
; For php_*flag, valid values are on, off, 1, 0, true, false, yes or no.

; Defining 'extension' will load the corresponding shared extension from
; extension_dir. Defining 'disable_functions' or 'disable_classes' will not
; overwrite previously defined php.ini values, but will append the new value
; instead.

; Note: path INI options can be relative and will be expanded with the prefix
; (pool, global or /usr)

; Default Value: nothing is defined by default except the values in php.ini and
;                specified at startup with the -d argument
;php_admin_value[sendmail_path] = /usr/sbin/sendmail -t -i -f www@my.domain.com
;php_flag[display_errors] = off
;php_admin_value[error_log] = /var/log/fpm-php.www.log
;php_admin_flag[log_errors] = on
;php_admin_value[memory_limit] = 32M

You will need to manually make the PHP-FPM directory in the correct place to reflect the value in the config file of the log file.
linux-ldan:/etc/php5/fpm # mkdir /var/log/php-fpm
linux-ldan:/etc/php5/fpm #

In addition, I have made numerous other small changes from the default configuration. For the sake of clarity, here's a diff of my changes:
linux-ldan:/etc/php5/fpm # diff php-fpm.conf php-fpm.conf.default
25c25
< pid = /var/run/php-fpm.pid
---
> ;pid = run/php-fpm.pid
30c30
< error_log = /var/log/php-fpm/php-fpm.log
---
> ;error_log = log/php-fpm.log
35c35
< log_level = error
---
> ;log_level = notice
105c105
< listen = /tmp/phpfpm.sock
---
> listen = 127.0.0.1:9000
166c166
< pm.start_servers = 20
---
> ;pm.start_servers = 20
171c171
< pm.min_spare_servers = 5
---
> ;pm.min_spare_servers = 5
176c176
< pm.max_spare_servers = 35
---
> ;pm.max_spare_servers = 35
182c182
< pm.max_requests = 500
---
> ;pm.max_requests = 500
343c343
< catch_workers_output = yes
---
> ;catch_workers_output = yes
linux-ldan:/etc/php5/fpm #

Most of these changes are self-evident, but some are worthy of further discussion. The socket file needs to be in the tmp directory, and the process id needs to have an absolute path, and finally I like the catch_workers_output to be yes so that all calls to PHP's error_log() function are captured in the log. Ideal for debugging. It should also be noted that this is a development instance and as such the configuration values may need tweaking in a live environment.

Starting it up!

If you are already running Apache like I am, you will need to stop the server before you start Nginx and PHP-FPM. Otherwise, just skip the first line.

linux-ldan:/ # /etc/init.d/apache2 stop
redirecting to systemctl
linux-ldan:/ # /etc/init.d/nginx start
redirecting to systemctl
linux-ldan:/ # /etc/init.d/php-fpm start
redirecting to systemctl
linux-ldan:/ #

Ok - you should now have a blindingly fast Drupal rig with web pages served by the awesome Nginx! Image below is living proof. Ignore the diagnostic - I've got a mildly infuriating PHP version issue on my Drupal 6 sites on localhost.

Badzilla localhost